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Showing posts with the label Oncology

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - Causes of elevated level

CEA is an oncofetal antigen, a glycoprotein that is usually produced only during fetal life and is not present in the healthy adult blood. It is associated with certain malignancies, particularly epithelial tumors. It is a very non-specific tumour marker. Normal values: Non-smokers: 0–3 ng/mL [μg/L] Smokers: 0-5 ng/mL [μg/L] Elevated levels in:   1) Adenocarcinoma of colon cancer (72%) (right side of colon>left side),  2) Pancreatic cancer (91%),  3) Lung cancer (76%),  4) Stomach cancer (61%),  5) Breast cancer,  6) Cancer of ovary,  7) Cholangiocarcinoma,  8) Gall bladder cancer. Other non-neoplastic conditions include:  1) Cigarette smokers,  2) Benign liver disease (acute 50% and chronic 90%),  3) Benign GI disease (peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, colitis,cholecystitis). Elevations >20 ng/mL are generally associated with malignancy and metastasis. Screening:   The test is not sensitive or specific enough to be useful in cancer screening