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BPAP - Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation

Bilevel noninvasive ventilation provides: 1) IPAP - inspiratory positive airway pressure and 2) EPAP - expiratory PAP at two different levels. This is typically delivered with a tight fitting nasal or face mask which allows for the development of positive airway pressure. The noninvasive therapy should be initiated as early as possible in case of respiratory failure and is best used for short term. "Delta PAP" is the difference between IPAP and EPAP. It directly correlates with the tidal volume delivered. If the "delta PAP" is larger then the tidal volume will be larger and hence it will provide a better alveolar ventilation.  INITIAL SETTINGS  It is quite safe to start the following initial settings: 1) EPAP 3 to 5 cm H2O (2 - 4 mm Hg) – It can be increased to around 10 cm H2O if ever the oxygenation remains inadequate tidal volume. 2) IPAP 8 to 12 cm H2O (6 - 9 mm Hg) – This can be increased in increments of 2 cm H2O as tolerated by the patient, to a maxim
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis - Review

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Torsades de pointes - twisting of the points

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Endomysium, Perimysium and epimysium - definition, histology

Each muscle fibre is closely surrounded by connective tissue. This acts as a support for the muscle fibres and unites them to each other. 1) Each muscle fibres is surrounded by delicate connective tissue that is called the endomysium . 2) Individual fasciculi are enclosed by a stronger sheath of connective tissue called the perimysium . 3) The entire muscle is surrounded by connective tissue called the epimysium . This is illustrated by the schematic diagram below. 1= perimysium, 2= endomysium, 3= fasciculus. At the junction of a muscle with a tendon, the fibres of the endomysium, the perimysium and the epimysium become continuous with the fibres of the tendon. First published on: 27 December 2016

Chronic sinusitis - Steam inhalation not effective, nasal irrigation may help

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The common cold - definition, diagnosis and treatment

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Reading chest radiograph - Penetration

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