Monday, April 4, 2011

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hemoptysis - causes

  1. Non-respiratory tract sources
      1. Nasopharyngeal source of bleeding - epistaxis
      2. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding - look out for melena
  2. Common Causes of respiratory tract bleeding
      1. Infection (60-70% of Hemoptysis)
        1. Acute Bronchitis (26% of Hemoptysis) - mucoid also
        2. Pneumonia (10% of Hemoptysis)
          1. Staphylococcus aureus
          2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa - foul smelling
        3. Tuberculosis (8% of Hemoptysis)
        4. Fungal organisms (e.g. Aspergillosis) - with a black component also
        5. Influenza
      2. Lung Cancer (23% of Hemoptysis)
        1. Hemoptysis is rarely due to metastases
  3. Less common causes of respiratory tract bleeding
      1. Cardiovascular causes
        1. Pulmonary venous Hypertension
          1. Congestive Heart Failure - frothy
          2. Severe Mitral Stenosis
        2. Pulmonary Embolism
        3. Arteriovenous malformation
      2. Pulmonary causes
        1. Bronchiectasis
        2. Airway trauma or foreign body (esp. children)
        3. Lung Abscess
        4. Goodpasture's Syndrome
        5. Wegener's Granulomatosis
        6. Lupus pneumonitis

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